AUTHOR: Josh Kapfer (ReptileJK)

ISSUE: 18:26-27



BRG 9 (+1)

NIM 5 (+0)

PER 4 (+0)

STR 14 (+4)*

VIT 12 (+3)

WIT 8 (+1)


STAM +4*



WIS +1



















Special Abilities

Hurl, Mount (Steady; in captives only), Mount (War-trained; in captives only), Armour (+6), Natural Weapon (tusks, if used to gore) 4D6, Obliterate Barrier, Trample Underfoot, Travel In Herds (wild individuals only), Unprotected Eyes, Warned of Their Coming.


Armed Combat: Natural Weapons (Tusks) +7, Intimidate (Power) +2, Observe (hearing, smell) +6, Ranged Combat: thrown objects +5, Run +8, Survival (Southern Plains, Jungle Edges) +10


TN Equivalent



Note: Make the following adjustments for an elephant matriarch: Brg 10 (+2), Str 15 (+4); Will +2, Wis +2; Armed Combat: Natural Weapons (Tusks) +8, Intimidate (Power) +3



Mūmaks and true Elephants are beasts whose size is the talk of legends. They tower above all other animals native to Middle Earth, except possibly dragons, standing upon sturdy legs the width of tree trunks. As adults, true Elephants are reported to reach 4 meters at the shoulder, weighing nearly 7 tons, which is impressive. However, even true Elephants are dwarfed by Mūmaks, who reach an astonishing 15-17 meters and 18 tons! Both have massive heads, adorned with large flat ears and long curved tusks of ivory, which protrude from their mouths, with subtle difference. While Elephants have, without exception, only two tusks per individual, Mūmaks may have four, and in rare cases, six. Yet, the most unique feature, which is possessed by both Mūmaks and true Elephants, is a long prehensile nose-like appendage called a proboscis (or trunk), protruding from the front of their heads. Mūmaks and Elephants both have a thick, calloused hide that is wrinkled and almost hairless. In Mūmaks, this hide is so thick that it helps make them resistant to weapons of steel. While this is less true in Elephants, their hide is thick, nonetheless.



Unique Special Abilities

Obliterate Barrier: These animals are incredibly powerful. During sieges, they are often employed to destroy city walls or gates. If, as a Narrator, you wish to attempt to have your mūmak or elephant knock over a barrier, refer to the tables below.


When a mūmak or elephant attempts to knock down a barrier or object, the Narrator must roll the appropriate number of D6s (listed on the table below) and add the animal’s strength modifier to the total of that roll. The number of D6s used represents the amount of force that an individual animal is exerting. Each object/barrier has a TN associated with it, which represents the number that must be beat by the creature to knock it down. The degrees of success for these TN checks are on the subsequent table.


Note: multiple animals can work synergistically to destroy barriers. In such cases, select one animal to be considered the primary individual. For each subsequent individual helping, add +10 to the roll.





City wall made of steel



City wall made of stone



City wall made of wood



Barred gate made of steel



Barred gate made of wood



Large tree



Large wooden object (i.e., catapult or similar)







The animal completely obliterates the barrier or object. This action increases the morale of those fighting with it, and all gain a +2 to their next roll.


The animal obliterates the object, but no additional bonus is given to those fighting on its side.


The animal destroys the object or barrier, but not totally.  Infantry and cavalry are able to pass through such a barrier, but only three abreast. Another Complete Success or better will obliterate it, but any infantry/cavalry in the way will receive 2D6 damage from falling debris.

Marginal or worse

The barrier or object is only slightly damaged. It will take one additional Superior Success or better to obliterate it, two Complete Successes to obliterate it. Additional Marginal or worse successes will do nothing.


Trample Underfoot: Due to their immense size and weight, mūmaks and elephants can very easily crush human-sized individuals (and their mounts) underfoot, both intentionally and unintentionally. Anyone who: a) attempts walking or riding next to one of these creatures, b) attempts walking or riding under one of these creatures, or c) doesn’t get out of the way when one of these creatures charges is subject to severe damage.


Each adventurer (regardless of whether they are fighting with or against the creature) who is close enough to a mūmak or elephant to be potentially trampled by it must make a Swiftness check (if on foot) or a Ride skill check (if on a mount). The TN to determine if an adventurer avoids being struck by the foot is 12 (if the adventurer is on foot) or 7 (if on a mount). If this check is failed, roll 1D6 on the following table to determine the results.





The mūmak or elephant hits you squarely with its foot. You are knocked from your horse (if mounted) or knocked to the ground (if not mounted) for 1D6 rounds. You take 4D6 points of damage.


The mūmak or elephant hits you with its foot. You are knocked from your horse (if mounted) or knocked to the ground (if not mounted) for 1D6-3 rounds. You take 3D6 points of damage


The mūmak or elephant grazes you with its foot. You take 1D6 points of damage, but are not knocked to the ground


The mūmak’s or elephant’s foot brushes against you. You take 1D6-3 points of damage, but are not knocked to the ground.


Travel in Herds (Wild individuals only): Although they are easy to track, it is nearly impossible to surprise a herd of wild mūmaks or elephants. This is because, as a unit, they are very perceptive and set several individuals to scout the outskirts of the group and warn of intruders. This is an adaptation to keep predators from being able to attack and kill their young. Any opposed Sneak (Stealth) skill check attempted by an adventurer against the mūmak’s or elephant’s Observe (Hearing, Smell) skill check is automatically reduced by 10.


Warned of Their Coming: Because of their immense bulk and tendency to communicate with each other through sound production, it is difficult for mūmaks and elephants to travel without giving away their position. Furthermore, when traveling, these beasts will often knock over vegetation and disturb other animals, making them very easy to track. Thus, they have no Sneak (stealth) skill rating, and anyone attempting to use the Track skill in any environment, or the Observe (Spot, or Hearing) skill to find these creatures, automatically gains a +10 to their roll.




Mūmaks and their relatives have existed in the south-eastern portions of Middle Earth for many, many years. Because they hail from a land that has been traveled in only sparingly by the Free Peoples, little is known about them. In fact, due to this, as well as their rarity and aggressive natures, virtually nothing is known about Mūmaks by those living in Western Middle Earth, and much information about their habits has been extrapolated from what little has been witnessed in true Elephants. All known information regarding these animals comes from only two published sources: one from The Royal Academy of Science, Minas Tirith entitled “Mammals Native to Middle Earth’s Arid Regions”, written by the renowned Loremaster Dallan Turagon of Gondor, and a second from the Royal Academy entitled “Creatures of Southern Middle Earth” by Elat Nebellur of Umbar. In both of these sources, the authors suggest that, while some Proboscideans (for example, true Elephants) are natural creatures, untouched by evil, the mammoth beasts used as mounts by the Haradrim (i.e. Mūmaks) are creatures that have been tainted by the hand of the Dark Lord. Early in their evolutionary development, during the First Age of Middle Earth, Mūmaks were not unlike true Elephants in appearance, size and demeanor. It is believed that it was during this time that the Dark Lord heard tales of them and sought them out. No one can be certain as to what his plan was for these beasts, but it seems obvious that he was hoping to create a race of creatures that could even the playing field when his armies laid siege to cities with high protective walls. Therefore, it is believed that he took some, tainted them with his Will and bred them selectively. Over time, he released them back into the wild and allowed them to develop as a species. From that point onward, little speculation can be made about the evolutionary history of Mūmaks. Most believe that they are related to Elephants, but some consider them not to be a true species because the Dark Lord altered their natural development. Whatever the case, the truth about their origins may never be known.


Interestingly, it is reported that Mūmaks and Elephants have existed in southeastern Middle Earth for ages. This is due to the fact that scholars who study the Pantheon of Middle Earth’s southern human races have found that Elephants and Mūmaks are often revered as minor (and even major) deities. Ancient Haradrim, for example, worshipped a God whose appearance was that of a man with the head of a Mūmak, called Yagga Osha. He is said to carry the world on his shoulders and control the rising of the sun with his mighty trunk.




Due to their preference for warm climes, the geographical distribution of Mūmaks and elephants is very limited. In fact, because of their rarity, these beasts are considered to be little more than myth by people living in the far western lands of Middle Earth. Mūmaks and their relatives, for example, are found naturally only in far southeastern Middle Earth. This includes far Harad and parts of Khand. Though also once commonly found in Harondor and even into southern Gondor, neither Mūmaks nor true elephants have been reported in either region for many years.


There is a marked difference in population densities of Mūmaks and elephants as it relates to geographic location. These two types of animals cannot easily co-exist in an area. Although both species are found in Khand and Harad, it is reported that the density of elephant populations increases as one moves west from the western edges of Harad into eastern Khand. Conversely, Mūmak population densities increase as one moves east into far Harad.


As has been stated elsewhere, these beasts prefer primarily open, arid, and warm habitats. Thus, they often inhabit savannahs, but, depending on species, will occasionally graze along the edges of adjacent forests from time to time. Whether Mūmaks or elephants, a water source is usually desired, both for drinking and also for taking “mud-baths”. Mūmaks and elephants frequently wallow in mud because it helps protect their skin from the hot sun and insects. When mud is not available, these animals will pick up dirt or dust with their trunks and fling it over their shoulders to help shoo away insects.


True elephants frequently use savannahs, like their larger relatives. It should be noted that Mūmaks and elephants will not cohabit the same areas (there’s not enough vegetation in any area of Middle Earth to sustain a family group of elephants and Mūmaks feeding together). Unlike Mūmaks, however, elephants can occasionally inhabit forest edges and less dense forest interiors, where they hide from predators and threats (primarily from humans who hunt them, not for use as beasts of burden, but for their ivory tusks). As with Mūmaks, finding adequate amounts of food is critically important to the survival of elephants. Unlike Mūmaks, these creatures are frequently found near water sources (regardless of whether it is the rainy or dry season). Thus, they will often visit any rivers, lakes, or potholes that may exist in their territories and make it part of their daily routines.




Mūmaks and elephants are highly social creatures. The bonds between individuals are reported to be uncannily strong. Some even believe that when expressing the strength of these bonds, Mūmaks and elephants display very human-like emotions. They supposedly grieve the death of family members and attempt to console injured or sick members of their group. They are also believed to show joy at the return of a long missing family member, which is expressed by turning in circles, raising their heads and filling the air with a raucous symphony of trumpeting. These interpretations of such actions are purely conjecture, however.


These creatures exist in moderately sized matriarchal family groups containing four to five individuals in Mūmaks and five to ten individuals in elephants. Occasionally, several family groups will combine to form larger units called herds. Whether existing in herds or family groups, the oldest female (i.e. the matriarch) makes all decisions for the group. These decisions include in which direction the group will travel, when it is the appropriate time to find a water source, and so on. When the matriarch dies, her oldest offspring will take her place.


As was previously stated, females dominate family groups (Mūmak or elephant) and the matriarch ejects males from the herd when the reach adulthood (at approximately age 14). The matriarch only allows adult males (or bulls) to return to these family groups during the breeding season. Otherwise, they are forced to travel singly or with other males in, what are termed, “bachelor herds”. Adults vehemently protect infants and juveniles, whether they are their own offspring or not. In fact, when danger draws near, all adults in a group will surround the juveniles to shield them from danger. This makes capturing juveniles for domestication (which is preferred) particularly dangerous.


There are several ways in which Mūmaks and elephants communicate with each other. These include vocalizations and the stamping of feet. It is believed that individuals can hear such sounds up to a distance of over 2 km away from their source. In addition to sound production, the use of pheromones by females entering estrus is also a probable way in which they attract males during the breeding season. Tactile communication is also very important. The trunks of these creatures are so sensitive that it is believed that they can determine, by touch, individuals within their family groups.




It is nearly impossible that adventurers will encounter wild mūmaks or elephants in the lands of western or northern Middle Earth. The climate is completely unsuitable for them to survive (i.e., too cold in the winter). To encounter such animals in the wild, one would have to be adventuring in the lands of Harad, etc., to the southeast.


It may be possible, however, that adventurers encounter a mūmak or elephant that has escaped from captivity in areas of Middle Earth where the events of The Lord of the Rings occur. This is more likely to happen in southern areas (such as Gondor) during warmer months. Perhaps a caravan of supplies was being shipped from Harad to Mordor, and the mūmak broke free?